A Galileo thermometer in Otto's office at Imperial College London. The glass spheres vary in density and move up and down as the temperature changes. Friederike Otto, known to most people as Fredi, is a British scientist renowned for studying the effects of climate change on the weather. From her base at Imperial College London, she leads World Weather Attribution—a resource that can prove, within a matter of days, whether a storm, flood, heat wave or drought was caused by the climate crisis. Not so long ago, people used the malignancy of nature or the whims of gods to explain why the weather careened between This story is from Kinfolk Issue Forty-Four Buy Now Related Stories Arts & Culture Issue 45 Ella Al-Shamahi The scientist digging for history in the world’s most hostile landscapes. Arts & Culture Issue 44 The False Mirror Compositions inspired by the iconic clouds—and surrealist sensibilities—of René Magritte. Arts & Culture Issue 44 Boaz Nechemia Meet Jerusalem’s favorite weatherman. Arts & Culture Issue 44 Swept Away A short history of wild weather on-screen. Arts & Culture Issue 44 Sun Seekers Author Lyra Kilston charts a fascinating scene from the Golden State’s vast counterculture mythology. Arts & Culture Issue 43 David Erritzoe On the mind-bending potential of psychedelics.